Favourite  CCPIT  Chinese/Chino
 
   HomePage > Costa Rica > China Facefile > Content
    China Facefile
 
 
 
Agriculture
2015-07-08   
 

Development

China is a country with a large population but less arable land. With only 7 percent of the world's cultivated land, China has to feed one fifth of the world's population. Therefore, China's agriculture is an important issue and draws wide attention of the world. Some foreigners once raised the question, " Who will feed China?" China's leaders and agriculture experts' reply was, "We Chinese will feed ourselves."

This sector has developed rapidly since reforms in the rural areas began in 1978. The major reforms were: the household contract responsibility system, which restored to the farmers the right to use land, arrange farm work, and to dispose of their output; canceling the state market monopoly of agricultural products, and of price controls over most of agricultural and ancillary products; abolishing many restrictive policies, allowing farmers to develop diversified business and set up township enterprises so as to fire their enthusiasm for production. The reforms emancipated and developed rural productive forces, promoted the rapid growth of agriculture - particularly in grain production - and the optimization of agricultural structure. The achievements have been remarkable.

In the 1990s, China's agriculture and rural economy faced unprecedented difficulties and challenges. But development momentum maintained fairly good nonetheless, with most products in surplus and supply and demand basically in balance every year. The year 2004 was a turning point, with grain production of 469.47 million tons, reversing a five-year decline. Now China leads the world in output of grain, cotton, oil plants, fruit, meat, eggs, aquatic products and vegetables.

Output per capita has risen significantly. In 2004, grain output was 362 kg per capita; per capita figures for meat (pork, beef, and mutton), milk, and aquatic products were above world averages, reaching 44.6 kg, 17.4 kg, and 37.8 kg, respectively.

Increase in Outputs of Main Farm Products 
(Unit: 10,000 tons)

Type

1978

1990

2000

2003

2004

Grain 

30,477 

44,624 

46,218 

43,070 

46,947

Cotton    

216.7 

450.8

441.7

486.0

632.4

Oil-bearing crops     

521.8

1,613.2

2,954.8

2,811.0

3,065.9

Sugarcane    

2,111.6

5,762.0

6,828.0

 9,023.5

8,984.9

Beet    

270.2

1,452.5

807.3

 618.2

585.7

Cured tobacco    

105.2 

225.9

223.8

201.5

216.3

Tea   

26.8 

54.0

68.3 

76.8

83.5

Fruit     

657.0

1,874.4

6,225.1

14,517.4

15,340.9

Meat    

856.3 

2,513.5

6,125.4

6,932.9

7,244.8

Aquatic products     

465.4

1,237.0

4,278.5

4,704.5

4,901.8

Township enterprises

Huge gains in agricultural efficiency have emancipated huge numbers of rural laborers from the land, thus laying the basis for the development of farmer-run township enterprises whose competitively priced goods and services sell well across China. They are involved in many sectors, e.g. industry, agricultural products processing, transportation and communications, construction, commerce and catering.

By 2004, 22.13 million township enterprises, with 138.66 million employees had generated 4,181.5 billion yuan in added value, a 13.9 percent increase over 2003.

Now the driving force behind the increase in farmers' income and rural economic development, township enterprises have created job opportunities for about 30 percent of rural laborers to date.

Agricultural industrialization

In recent years, investment in excess of three billion yuan has been devoted to furthering agricultural industrialization, an important part of the national program for enhancing the international competitiveness of Chinese agriculture. In 2004 alone the government set up 35 agricultural programs, supported by 30 million yuan from the Central Government, over 50 million yuan from local governments, some 100 million yuan of bank loans and more than 600 million yuan raised by enterprises and farmers.

Now a pattern has been formed, with 582 key national enterprises and over 2,000 key provincial enterprises as spearhead, and agencies of various forms connecting farmers with the production base. Leading enterprises in certain sectors, e.g., corn processing, dairy industry and chicken production, have taken major market share and play an increasingly important role in the development and pricing of their respective industries.

Since 2003, the state has set up six types of demonstration projects for the industrialization of modern agro-technology, so as to promote the use of advanced technology for agricultural production, and enhance foreign earnings from exports of farm products.

These projects include industrialization of breeding and cultivation of excellent new varieties and fine strains; high-efficiency, eco-friendly planting and aquatic breeding technology; water-saving and precision technologies; downstream processing of agricultural and ancillary products; pollution-free inputs (e.g., fertilizer and fodder) and the establishment of an agricultural information platform. The "downstream processing of main agricultural products project" was listed as an important sci-tech project during the 2000-2005 Five-Year Plan period. It aims at developing key technologies and equipment for downstream processing of staple agricultural products, research into integrated quality control systems and the quick testing of agro-product technology and equipment. Once completed, some of China's technological aspects will meet the advanced international standard. Meanwhile, the "dairy industry development" and "water-saving agriculture" projects have been listed among important sci-tech application programs initiated by the Ministry of Science and Technology.

Contribution of science and technology to agriculture

The research achievements in hybrid rice of scientist Yuan Longping, internationally regarded as the "father of hybrid rice," rewrote the history of rice cultivation in China in the second half of the 20th century. In 2003, Yuan Longping made a breakthrough in bilinear hybrid rice research. In two small demonstration fields, the per-hectare yield of super-class hybrid rice reached 12,112 kg and 12,261 kg and now large scale trials of this super-class hybrid rice are being conducted. Yuan Longping's next goal is to produce super-class hybrid rice with a yield in excess of 13,500 kg per ha before 2008.

Government programs play a significant role in improving sci-tech knowledge by conveying advanced sci-tech achievements to the countryside and to every rural household; examples include the Spark Program, the Promotion of Important Achievements Plan, the Bumper Harvest Plan, and the Prairie Fire Program.

Attached files:
 
??
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CCPIT  
Copyright(c)2014 CCPIT Costa Rica Office All Rights Reserved